Giza (/ˈɡiːzə/; sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; Arabic: الجيزة al-Jīzah Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [el ˈgiːze]; Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲅⲓⲍⲁTiperses Giza) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate. It is located on the west bank of the Nile 4.9 km (3 mi) southwest of central Cairo. Along with Cairo Governorate Shubra El-Kheima Helwan 6th October City and Obour the five form Greater Cairometropolis.
Giza lies less than 20 km (12.43 mi) north of "Mn Nefer" (Memphis in Greek) which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Egyptian language and which was the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh Narmer.
Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures including the Great Sphinx the Great Pyramid of Giza and a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt\'s history due to its location close to Memphis the ancient Pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom. Its St. George cathedral is the episcopal see of the Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza.
The city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate and is located near the northeast border of this governorate in coordinates. It is located right on the banks of the River Nile. The city\'s population was 2 681 863 in the 2006 national census while the governorate had 6 272 571 at the same census. Its large population made it the world\'s second largest suburb in 2006 tied with Incheon South Korea and Quezon City Philippines second only to Yokohama Japan.
Giza\'s most famous land form and archaeological site the Giza Plateau holds some major monuments of Egyptian history and is home to the Great Sphinx. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis across the river from modern day Cairo. The Giza Plateau is also home to Egyptian monuments such as the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty. The Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian a reference point used for determining a base longitude.
Giza experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate (Köppen: BWh). Its climate is similar to Cairo owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt in spring bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 to 20 °C (61 to 68 °F) while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C (45 °F). In summer the highs are 40 °C (104 °F) and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rain is infrequent in Giza; snow and freezing temperatures are extremely rare.
Up to August 2013 the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C (115 °F) on 13 June 1965 while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 8 January 1966.