About Egyptology

The research of Emmanuel de Rougé in France Samuel Birch in England and Heinrich Brugsch in Germany established Egyptology as an academic discipline. In 1880 Flinders Petrie brought to Egypt his technique of controlled scientifically recorded excavation which revolutionized archaeology; he pushed back the origins of Egyptian culture to 4500 bce. The British Egypt Exploration Fund (later Society) founded in 1882 promoted excavations using Petrie’s principles and other professional associations of Egyptologists spread these standards. Adolf Erman and Hermann Grapow published in Berlin the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache an exhaustive dictionary of hieroglyphic Egyptian. In 1954 Wolja Erichsen published his demotic lexicon Demotisches Glossar. The Germans Erman Eduard Meyer and Kurt Sethe the English scholars Francis Llewellyn Griffith and Sir Alan H. Gardiner and the Czech Egyptologist Jaroslav Černý conducted research that shaped the currently accepted outlines of Egyptian history. James Henry Breasted founded the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago and pioneered American Egyptology with his survey of Egypt and Nubia (1895–96). He started the Epigraphic Survey in 1924 to make accurate copies of the inscriptions on monuments which are subject to deterioration from exposure to the elements and to then publish these records. The group’s current project which began during the 1990–91 season is a record of the temple of Amon in Madinat Habu.